In addition to NIH and NSF, a number of organizations offer grant support for postdoctoral trainees who focus on neuroscience research. The list below includes many of these.
Note that some organizations fund research in particular areas. For example, the American Health Assistance Foundation focuses on Alzheimer's disease research.
Use the links to learn about the deadlines and particular requirements of each opportunity.
American Cancer Society
American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR)
American Foundation for Addiction Research
American Health Assistance Foundation
American Heart Association
Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation
Craig H Neilsen Foundation
Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE)
Hereditary Disease Foundation
Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research
National Multiple Sclerosis Society
Parkinson's Disease Foundation